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Purpose

The department directs and controls the armed forces and assists the president in the direction of the nation's security.

By authority of the National Security Act of 1947, the National Military Establishment was created on September 18, 1947. The first secretary was primarily a coordinator, developing general policies for the three executive departments—the Department of the Navy, Department of the Army, and newly created Department of the Air Force. The act was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense. The former War Department became part of the Department of the Army. A chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was added, and the military departments were placed under the Defense Department without cabinet status. Major amendments in 1953, 1958, and 1977 resulted in increased responsibilities for the secretary, establishment of an operational chain of command to the unified and specified commands, and authority (for the secretary) to bypass the military departments on operational matters.

Organization

The major subdivisions are the Office of the Secretary, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military departments, the unified and specified commands, the Armed Forces Policy Council, and the agencies. The staff of the Office of the Secretary is primarily civilian. It advises and assists the secretary in top-level management. Senior members include the deputy secretary, the undersecretary for policy, the undersecretary for acquisition, the director of defense research and engineering, and the assistant secretaries and their staffs who specialize in international security, personnel, logistics, and similar matters. Also at this level, the military, economic, and political elements associated with military preparedness are balanced to determine size and structure of the armed forces. The Armed Forces Policy Council advises the secretary on a broad range of policy matters.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff consists of a chairman, chiefs of staff of the United States Army and the United States Air Force, the chief of naval operations (United States Navy), and the commandant of the United States Marine Corps; all the members are four-star officers. As a group they are responsible for preparing strategic and logistical plans of the armed forces. They also constitute the immediate military staff of the secretary of defense. In 1986 Congress passed a defense reorganization bill, making the chairman alone the principal military adviser to the president and creating the post of vice-chairman as second in command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Each of the military departments is separately organized under its own secretary but functions under the control of the Department of Defense. Thus, the chain of command descends directly from the president to the secretary of defense to the military departments, except for operational matters. The chain of command for combat or similar operations goes from the president to the secretary of defense and through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the unified and specified commands, bypassing the military departments. The 1986 legislation increases the authority of commanders in the field over their units and emphasizes joint planning among the armed forces.


15. RECRUITING AMD PROMOTION SYSTEM FOR ENLISTED PERSONNEL
Recruiting in the US Armed Forces in peacetime is based on voluntary enlistment, whereas in time of WWII recruiting was com­pulsory. The Selective Service Act of 1948 initiated a peacetime draft program which ended soon after the war in Vietnam. Nowadays, to become a serviceman, an individual may enlist or reenlist in the branch selected by him.

To enlist in the Regular Army at present "a man must be a citizen of the United States between the ages of seventeen and thirty-five, of good health, and good moral character". The mini­mum age for enlistment in the WAC is 18 years. Applicants may en­list for from two- to five-year terms. Those enlisting or reenlisting for three-year enlisted periods or longer may choose their ser­vice and overseas theater.

Each service has its own set of regulations for evaluating and promoting its enlisted people. Most have minimum requirements and a regular timetable for promotion based on time in service, time in grade and standards in job performance, with the top pe­ople in each rank able to move up early.

However, such things as courts-martial, poor job performance •valuations or being overweight can preclude people from continuing in uniform after completing a tour of obligated service.

Advancement in the Army

The primary qualification for any promotion is the success­ful mastery of all skills needed to perform the duties of the next higher grade. Technical expertise in the military occupational specialty (MOS) is a consideration, but personality traits, pride in service, professionalism and leadership qualities also figure in the mix. Before soldiers can be promoted, they must be out­standing in their present grade and level of responsibility.

The only promotion that is truly automatic is the promotion to E-2. Normally, an E-l becomes an E-2 after six months of service. Local commanders can, however, promote a deserving soldier faster. Promotion to E-3 requires a year's service and four months time in grade. Promotions to E-4 require two year's service and six months in grade.

For enlisted grades E-5 to E-8, the system gets a bit more complicated. Soldiers must be recommended for E-5 and E-6 by a board, generally consisting of the unit's commander and senior noncommissioned officers.

The soldier's score is calculated on a 1,000-point scale, with points awarded for time in grade, length of service, evaluation reports and various medals and in-service awards.

Each board member independently evaluates each soldier thai comes before the board. It's not a joint or team effort. Board members rate soldiers via a point system for six broad areas of evaluation: personal appearance, military bearing and self-conf: dence; oral expression and conversational skills; knowledge of basic soldiering, and attitude, including leadership, potential for advancement and trends in performance.

Promotions to E-5 generally require three years' service and eight months in grade as in E-4. In addition, soldiers must be in a promotable status, have the recommendation of their unit commander and appear before the board. Making E-6 usually takes seven years' service and 10 months in grade as an E-5. Promotion to E-7 and above are handled by centralized Department of the Array boards under what is called "best qualified" criteria. Army officials tell each board how many NCOs can be selected in a "1< ter of instruction".

If soldiers do not have the potential for continued service the boards will recommend them for Department of the Army bars I reenlistment. Once barred, soldiers become ineligible for promo­tion and for many types of schooling. Bars also can affect a soldier's eligibility for reassignment.

When a bar is imposed, it can be removed only by the Head­quarters, Department of the Army Reenlistment Appeals Board. Be­fore the bars can be removed, however, a soldier must appeal the decision. If no appeal is made, or if the appeal is denied, the soldier's career will end at the expiration of his current term of service.

16

В отличие от таблиц званий Российской армии в данной таблице включена колонка под названием  Pay grades. Примерно перевод звучит так - "Ранг оплаты" или "Код звания". Это нечто вроде существовавшей в Красной Армии в 1924-1935 годах системы "Служебных категорий". В чем то система Pay grades перекликается с предлагаемой автором системы кодировки для обеспечения возможности сравнения званий. Во всяком случае Pay grades создает определенные удобства для финансовой, вещевой и продовольственных служб. В приказах и инструкциях вместо "... младшим офицерам выдается..., а если младший офицер занимает должность..., то ему выдавать....  как старшим офицерам...",  можно писать коротко ".... выдавать офицерам от O1 по О9 включительно".

Вооруженные силы США состоят из четырех основных составляющих - армия (US Army), флот (US Navy), авиация (US Air Force) и морская пехота (US Marine Corps). В каждом из этих основных видов вооруженных сил своя собственная система званий. В данной таблице приводятся звания только армии.

Система званий армии США имеет ряд особенностей. Прежде всего, это развитая категория сержантского состава. Эта категория имеет шесть  званий. Причем  Command sergeant major (Команд саджант мейджа), и Sergeant major of the Army (Саджант мейджа оф тзе ами ) являются скорее должностями, нежели званиями. Эти сержанты являются начальниками всех сержантов и одновременно их представителями в высшем руководстве вооруженных сил, защитниками интересов всех подчиненных сержантов. В вольном переводе его звание звучит так - "Главный сержант". Имеются:  а)главный сержант командования (имеется по одному в каждом роде войск и в каждом крупном воинском объединении(армия, корпус и т.п.); б) главный сержант армии (имеется один при Комитете начальников штабов).

Для офицеров и генералов в армии США существует своеобразная система двойных званий. Каждый из них имеет два звания - постоянное и временное. Постоянное звание это звание так же как и в нашей армии. Временное звание обязательно соответствует занимаемой должности.

Например, и в США и в России звание капитан соответствует должности командира роты. При назначении в России на должность командира роты лейтенанта, он так и будет ходить в звании лейтенанта, пока по выслуге лет ему не подойдет время получать звание старшего лейтенанта, затем капитана. В США же при назначении второго лейтенанта на должность командира роты ему сразу же будет присвоено временное звание капитан, а его постоянное звание так и будет - второй лейтенант. По выслуге лет он получит звание первый лейтенант, затем капитан. Пока временное и постоянное звание не совпадут. В одной книге описывющей  карьеру одного американского генерала рассказывается как он, будучи сержантом, во время Первой Мировой войны очень быстро продвинулся до должности начальника штаба пехотного батальона и получил временное звание майор. Его постоянное звание к концу войны дошло только до второго лейтенанта. Когда после войны армию сократили и его поставили командовать взводом, то ему пришлось менять знаки различия майора на знаки различия лейтенанта. Высшее постоянное звание в армии США - Major- general (Мейджа-дженерал). Все остальные генеральские звания временные, т.е. генерал стоит на соответствующей должности. Звание General of the Army   присваивается только во время войны. Уже после написания и выкладки в сайт этой статьи автор получил ряд писем, в которых утверждается,  что системы временных и постоянных званий в армии США более не существует. Автор пока не смог проверить истинность этих утверждений, но читатель должен иметь в виду, что возможно эти утверждения небеспочвенны. В США не принято, чтобы младшие обращались к старшим по званию. Ко всем старшим по званию военнослужащим младшие обращаются одинаково - sir (сэр), к женщинам - mam (мэм). Старшие к младшим обращаются или по имени или же по званию. Причем ко всем военнослужащим категории "солдаты" обращаются - soldier (солдже), ко всем сержантам и уорент-офицерам - sergeant (саджант), ко всем младшим офицерам - lieutenant (лефтенент), ко всем старшим офицерам - colonel (кёнел), ко всем генералам - general (дженерал). Примерно также обращаются ко всем военнослужащим и гражданские лица, причем, если хотят подчеркнуть уважительность, близость, то обращаются - My general (Май дженерал).




Enlisted- Солдаты
Non-Commissioned officers -Сержанты
Warrant officers -Уорент офицеры (прапорщики)
Сompany grade officers -Офицеры ротного ранга (младшие офицеры)
Field grade officers -Старшие офицеры
General officers -Высшие офицеры (генералы)

17

Infantry, largest and oldest branch of all armies, made up of soldiers who fight chiefly on foot, using light weapons. The infantry is charged with closing in to kill or capture the enemy, or repelling enemy assaults with fire and close combat. Infantry troops may move on foot, or by armored vehicles, trucks, planes, or helicopters. Special units are trained for parachute and commando-type attacks. Mechanized infantry uses light armored vehicles to provide the firepower and mobility to form an effective combined arms team with tank units. The largest operating unit of infantry in the U.S. Army, without increments from other branches, is the brigade, commanded by a colonel. The brigade regularly receives support from armor, artillery, engineer, signal, and logistical units.

Infantry (учебник)


The infantry is the basic ground-gaining arm of the army. It is also the arm of close combat. It is mission is to close with the enemy by fire and maneuver in order to destroy or capture him, or counterattack.

Because of its versatility today's infantry is capable of fighting under widely varying conditions of terrain, weather, and nuclear availability which often restrict the employment of hv wpns and equipment. It can move by land, sea or air. The modern infantry may fight on foot, or go into action by parachute, helicopter, armored personnel carrier, or assault boat. The infantry can operate at night or under any climatic conditions, and can overcome natural and man-made obstacles which would stop other forces.

The advent of nuclear wpns has not changed the role of infantry on the battlefield but has brought to life mech inf which move and fight in APC's. The decisiveness of inf in cbt will continue and four of the five types of current ROAD divisions are infantry.

18. MECHANIZED INFANTRY AND INFANTRY DIVISIONS

Division Base


    • The division base includes the command and control, combat, combat support, and service support elements.

The command and control elements contain division and brigade HHC's and a MP со.

The div HQ provides command and supervision of operations of the division and attached units. Its main subdivisions are a general staff consisting of Gl, G2, G3, G4, and G5 sections and a special staff.

The division headquarters company provides administrative support for the div HQ. It is normally located at the division main command post. Elements may operate a division tactical command post when required. The со is organized with а со HQ and maint, mess, med, and command vehicle sees. The latter is not included in inf divs.

The brigade HQ assists the brigade commander to command aid elements of the div which are attached and to supervise all elms in support of the bde in either combat or training situations. It contains an executive officer and complete staff consisting of SI, S2, S3, and S4 officers, surgeon, chaplain, a communications officer, and a chemical officer. The bde HQ со is made up of a со HQ, stf sec, In sec, comm plat, and an avn sec. In mech inf divs the со includes a comd veh sec as well.

* The combat elements organic to the div base are the div arty, the Chaparral-Vulcan ADA bn, and the armored cavalry squadron (in mech div) or air cav sqdn (in inf div). The div arty provides cbt spt to the div by delivery of nuclear and nonnuclear artillery fires of appropriate type, caliber, and density under all conditions of weather, visibility, and terrain. It is organized with a HHB; fhree arty how bns, 155 mm (in mech inf divs) or 105 mm (in inf divs); a how bn, 155 mm/8 in (in inf divs) or 8 in how bn (in mech inf divs). The how bns are towed in inf divs and SP in mech inf divs.

The Chaparral-Vulcan ADA bn has the principal msn to protect elements, areas, and installations of the div against atks of en acft. It is organized with a HHB, two Vul btries, and two Chap ftTTT

The armd cav sqdn performs ground and air reconnaissance and provides security for the div. It can protect flanks of the div, collect and report information of intelligence value, act as co­vering force, conduct radiological monitoring and survey, perform damage control operations, provide rear area security, and conduct Semi-independent operations when suitably reinforced. The sqdn is organized with a HHT, three armd cav trps, and an air cav trp while the air cav sqdn is made up of three air cav trps and one armd cav trp.

** The combat support elements organically assigned to the div base contain engineer, signal, and aviation bns, the latter being replaced by avn со in the mech inf div.

The engr bn provides engr spt to the div. It is organized with a HHC, four engr cos, and a brg со. The sig bn assists the division commander in controlling units. It includes a HHC, command operations company, forw communications company, and a signal support operations a Рапу.

The avn bn provides avn spt for the division and is made of a HHC, assault helicopter company, "and an aviation gene support company.

The service support elements which provide administra' support to the division are found in the division support comma The SUPCOM is organized with a HHC, AG со, finance со, mi bn, med bn and sup and trans bn.




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